LaTeX: fix bash code block

Merged Jonathan Poelen requested to merge jpoelen/syntax-highlighting:ft_sh_in_latex into master

BUG: 464048

This fixes the issue with images 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7

Image 5 can only be fixed by adding a new form of rule that doesn't exist and requires a lot of change in the engine. Image 1 is not particularly a problem.

Other commits:

BUG: 323382
BUG: 340261
BUG: 473753

Edited by Jonathan Poelen

Merge request reports